Methane Emission Factors from Vietnamese Rice Production: Pooling Data of 36 Field Sites for Meta-Analysis


Rice production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the national budget of many Asian countries, but the extent of emissions varies strongly across agro-environmental zones. It is important to understand these differences in order to improve the national GHG inventory and effectively target mitigation options. This study presents a meta-analysis of CH4 database emission factors (EFs) from 36 field sites across the rice growing areas of Vietnam and covering 73 cropping seasons. The EFs were developed from field measurements using the closed chamber technique. The analysis for calculating baseline EFs in North, Central and South Vietnam in line with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 2 methodology was specified for the three cropping seasons being early-(E), mid-(M) and late-year (L) seasons. Calculated average CH4 EFs are given in kg ha−1 d−1 and reflect the distinct seasons in North (E: 2.21; L: 3.89), Central (E: 2.84; M+L: 3.13) and South Vietnam (E: 1.72; M: 2.80; L: 3.58). Derived from the available data of the edapho-hydrological zones of the Mekong River Delta, season-based EFs are more useful than zone-based EFs. In totality, these average EFs indicate an enormous variability of GHG emissions in Vietnamese rice production and represent much higher values than the IPCC default. Seasonal EFs from Vietnam exceeded IPCC defaults given for Southeast Asia corresponding to 160% (E), 240% (M) and 290% (L) of the medium value, respectively.