The benefits of agroforestry to soil fertility are particularly valuable where poor soils are associated with low and declining crop yields, food deficits, and dependence on food aid (Verchot et al. 2007; Okalebo et al. 2006). Tree-based land uses sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into the carbon (C) stored in plant and soil biomass, with the most significant increases in C storage achieved by moving from low biomass systems (grasslands, agricultural fallows, permanent shrublands) to tree-based systems (Roshetko et al. 2007). Agroforestry practices can emit less non-CO2 gases than other land uses if managed properly (Rosenstock et al. 2014), and therefore, agroforestry can contribute to climate change mitigation, especially in smallholder systems (Verchot et al. 2007; Montagnini and Nair 2012).